Over 31 species of Mammals have been recorded in Wilpattu. Some of the regular big game seen in here include the Asian Elephant, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Wild Buffalo, Spotted Deer, and Muntjac/ Barking Deer which is the most common herbivore.
Endemics spotted here include Sri Lanka Jungle Fowl, Brown-capped Babbler, Sri Lankan Woodshrike and Black-Capped Bulbul. Wilpattu is also very good for migrating birds like waterfowl and waders. Some of the commoner migrants seen include Black-tailed Godwit, Common Redshank, Common Sandpiper, Great Stone-curlew, Whiskered Tern, Gull-billed Tern, Curlew Sandpiper,Black-winged Stilt, Gargany & Northern Pintail. Forest birds include Chestnut-winged Cuckoo, Small Cuckoo, Racket-tailed Drongo, Asian Paradise Flycatcher, Coppersmith Barbet, Red-wattled Lapwing, Brown Fish Owl, Spot-bellied Eagle Owl, Crested Hawk Eagle and water birds include Painted Storks, Asian Open-bill, Eurasian Spoonbill, and Spot-billed Pelican.